Anthocyanin, also known as anthocyanin, is a kind of water-soluble natural pigment widely existing in plants in nature. It is a colored aglycone obtained by hydrolysis of anthocyanins. Most of the main color substances in fruits, vegetables and flowers are related to it. Under different pH values of plant cell vacuoles, anthocyanins make the petals colorful. There are more than 20 kinds of anthocyanins known, and 6 kinds are important in food. Anthocyanins in natural state exist in the form of glycosides, called anthocyanins, and few free anthocyanins exist. Anthocyanins are mainly used in food coloring, dyes, medicine, cosmetics and so on.
There is a highly molecular conjugate system in anthocyanins, which contains acidic and basic groups and is easily soluble in polar solvents such as water, methanol, ethanol, dilute alkali and dilute acid. The color of anthocyanins changes with the change of pH value. It is red when pH < 7, purple when pH = 7 ~ 8, and blue when pH > 11.
Anthocyanins also belong to bioflavonoids. They are the most important physiological activities. Their functions are free radical scavenging ability and antioxidant ability. Research shows that anthocyanins are the most effective antioxidants and the most powerful free radical scavengers found by human beings. The antioxidant performance of anthocyanins is 50 times higher than ve and 20 times higher than VC. At the same time, the role of anthocyanins not only makes plants show colorful colors, but also active molecules with health functions such as reducing enzyme activity and anti mutation. Studies have shown that the extract with a certain concentration of anthocyanin can effectively prevent carcinogenesis at different stages, but the individual role of anthocyanin is uncertain, partly because anthocyanin is easy to degrade after bioassay after separation from other stable components such as phenols.
With the development of science and technology, people pay more and more attention to the safety of food additives. The development and utilization of natural additives has become the general trend of the development and use of additives. Anthocyanins can not only be used as nutritional enhancers in food, but also as food preservatives instead of synthetic preservatives such as benzoic acid, and can be used as food colorants in ordinary drinks and food, which meets people's general requirements for natural, safe and healthy food additives.